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Raman spectroscopy and imaging of Bernalstacked bilayer graphene synthesized on copper foil by chemical vapour deposition: growth dependence on temperature

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dc.contributor.author Fabiane, M.
dc.contributor.author Madito, M. J.
dc.contributor.author Bello, A.
dc.contributor.author Manyala, N.
dc.date.accessioned 2017-02-01T09:11:12Z
dc.date.available 2017-02-01T09:11:12Z
dc.date.issued 2017
dc.identifier.issn 1097-4555
dc.identifier.uri http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jrs.5094
dc.identifier.uri http://repository.tml.nul.ls/handle/123456789/1151
dc.description.abstract We report on the effect of temperature on the growth of bilayer graphene on a copper foil under atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition (AP-CVD). Before characterization of the AP-CVD bilayer graphene, a high-quality graphene flake was obtained from the Kish bulk graphite by micro-mechanical exfoliation and characterized by using Raman spectroscopy and imaging. The Raman data of the exfoliated, high-quality graphene flake show monolayer and bilayer graphenes and were compared with the Raman data of AP-CVD graphene. Raman spectroscopy of AP-CVD graphene shows bilayer films that exhibit predominantly Bernal stacking with an I2D/IG ratio of ~1. At low growth temperature (~780 °C), Raman disorder-related peak intensity in the AP-CVD graphene is high and decreases with an increase in growth temperature to the lowest disorder intensity at ~973 °C. The selected area electron diffraction and atomic force microscopy average step height analysis showed the thickness of the bilayer graphene. The AP-CVD graphene is uniform at low growth temperatures (~780 °C) with a high disorder and becomes nonuniform at high growth temperatures (~867–973 °C) with a very low disorder as bilayer graphene evolves to form islands with an average lateral size of <10 μm. Competition between carbon adatoms supply through dehydrogenation of the CHx species, mobility and desorption rate of the carbon-adatom species for nucleation of the bilayer graphene as a function of temperature is elucidated. This study provides further insight into the growth mechanisms of bilayer graphene by AP-CVD on Cu. en_ZA
dc.language.iso en en_ZA
dc.rights Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. en_ZA
dc.source Journal of Raman Spectroscopy en_ZA
dc.subject graphene en_ZA
dc.subject AP-CVD en_ZA
dc.subject copper foil en_ZA
dc.subject Bernal-stacked bilayer en_ZA
dc.subject exfoliated graphene en_ZA
dc.title Raman spectroscopy and imaging of Bernalstacked bilayer graphene synthesized on copper foil by chemical vapour deposition: growth dependence on temperature en_ZA
dc.type Article en_ZA


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